Edited by stevesmith at Feb 07, 2017 05:37 |
Hello everyone i tell you about MIPI Alliance Background and Objectives
Q: What is the goal of the MIPI Alliance?
A: To benefit the mobile industry by establishing specifications for standard hardware and software interfaces in mobile devices and encouraging the adoption of those standards throughout the ecosystem. Implementations of MIPI Specs have proved beneficial outside of mobile devices and are increasingly used.
Q: What does "MIPI" stand for?
A: MIPI is not an acronym and has no specific meaning. MIPI Alliance is focused on developing interface specifications for mobile devices. Proper usage of MIPI are as follows:
MIPI Alliance -- The organization.
MIPI Member – Any company who joins the MIPI Alliance.
MIPI Specification -- A specification adopted by the MIPI Alliance.
Q: How do you pronounce MIPI?
Q: Who heads up the initiative?
A: Intel, Nokia, Samsung, STMicroelectronics, Texas Instruments & Toshiba are the current Board member companies that lead the organization. Working Groups are chaired by individuals from a variety of member companies. IEEE-ISTO is contracted to provide administration for the Alliance.
Q: What progress has been achieved since the initiative was originally launched?
A: MIPI Alliance has completed specifications in the areas of physical interface (D-PHY and M-PHY), camera (CSI), display (DSI and DCS), battery interface (BIF), test and debug parallel trace interface, system trace protocol, system power management interface (SPMI), RFIC to baseband IC interface (DigRFSM), and RF Front End (RFFE), low latency interfaces between processors (LLI), processor interface emulation (PIE), high-speed synchronous interface (HSI) physical layer, serial low-power inter-chip media bus (SLIMbus®), unified protocol (UniProSM), and descriptor and configuration data transfer (DDB). These specifications are currently being adopted across a broad range of mobile terminal products. Various other specifications are under development.
Q: What problem is MIPI trying to solve, exactly?
A: In a word: fragmentation. The mobile industry suffers from too many interfaces which are incompatible yet typically not differentiated. This leads to incompatibility between products, redundant engineering investments to maintain multiple interface technologies, and ultimately higher costs (but most likely not higher margins/value). MIPI intends to reduce this fragmentation by developing attractive targets for convergence which have technical and intellectual property rights benefits over proprietary alternatives.
Q: I hear MIPI described as focusing on a mobile scope—how does MIPI define "mobile scope?"
A:Mobile scope is an informal name for the variety of products that have implementations of a MIPI Specification that are inside a Mobile Terminal or Accessory as defined in the Membership Agreement; implementations that do not fit this description are outside this scope.
Q: What is a mobile device?
A: A common example would be a mobile phone or smartphone. MIPI often uses the more general term "mobile device" to reflect an increasing diversity in the types of "connected" products which are entering the marketplace, many of which may differ substantially from a traditional mobile phone.
Q: Will MIPI always be restricted to mobile device application processors or do you plan to expand the concept into other areas?
A: MIPI is focused on the application engine and associated peripherals in mobile devices, but the use of MIPI Specifications is not necessarily limited to these products. Considering the constant evolution of product categories and the number of member companies who are active in multiple market segments, MIPI interfaces may be utilized in other related products. However, MIPI is not involved in defining standards for market segments already well-served by existing standards bodies and consortia.
Specifications, Technology, Products and Applications
Q: In very simple terms, what are hardware and software interfaces to application processors?
A: A processor or system-on-a-chip typically has several ports or busses which interface to a variety of peripherals such as displays, cameras, memory, or communications devices. In the context of MIPI, specifications for such hardware interfaces will impact both the processors and the peripheral devices. These standard hardware interfaces may also impact low-level software which abstracts hardware resources from the higher-level software such as applications and operating systems.
Q: What is the result of standardizing these hardware and software interfaces? What is the benefit of such standardization?
A: Standard interfaces will yield greatly improved interoperability between peripherals, application processors, and system-on-a-chip products from multiple vendors. Development time and effort will be reduced for all companies in the value chain, because less time and effort will be redundantly invested in proprietary solutions. This will enable the industry to re-focus valuable resources into other areas which bring more direct benefit to consumers .
Q: Are any MIPI specifications available yet? If not, when will they become available?
A: MIPI Alliance has a rich portfolio of specifications which are released and adopted in the market. An overview of these specifications are available on the specifications portion of the website.
Q: How will MIPI specifications be made available?
A: MIPI Alliance will publish its specifications as defined in its Bylaws, which currently limits distribution only to member companies. MIPI Alliance membership has been structured so that all companies in the mobile industry can join and participate.
Q: Why is the PHY specification independent of the camera and display specifications?
A: MIPI determined that this separation of tasks was the most optimal use of MIPI resources and MIPI member company resources. For MIPI, this enabled efficient use of expert participants’ time and produced a single PHY specification which would be re-used by multiple interface specifications. For member companies, much of their investment in PHY implementation can be re-used for camera, display and future interface implementations .
Q: What product categories will the MIPI Standard influence?
A: The MIPI Alliance is primarily focused on mobile devices and similar application-rich, networked devices, although MIPI Specifications may prove useful in other product categories .
Q: What are serial interfaces and why are they important?
A: Serial interfaces typically reduce the number of pins, wires, or printed circuit conductors used to carry a signal. In a simple example, instead of a parallel interface simultaneously sending a bit of data thru 8 different pins, a serial interface could send the same 8 bits, consecutively, thru a single wire. This reduction in signal paths can be critical to mobile device design constraints, such as moving signals thru a flexible connector used in the hinge of a flip-phone. Such flexible connectors are often very limited in the number of wires/signals they can carry, so using serial interfaces allows more components on one side of the hinge to be connected to other components on the opposite side of the hinge. Other features typically found in serial interfaces, such as differential signaling, bring many benefits to other mobile device design challenges like electro-magnetic noise and interference. Hence, there is a trend toward serial interfaces in many areas of electronics .
Q: What is an Application Processor?
A: Application processor is a term often used to describe the microprocessor based system-on-a-chip (SoC) which runs applications in a mobile product. Typically it runs an OS (Operating System) and is independent of other processors(s) which may manage the wireless modem, though there are exceptions to these cases.
Q: What is an OS (Operating System)?
A: An OS is a high-level operating system that provides application engines and a execution environment as well as a scheduler. Typically the Open OS uses the MMU (Memory Management Unit) in an application processor.
Q: Will the MIPI Alliance define a new set of API's that must be adopted by a MIPI- compliant OS?
A: No. The MIPI Alliance has no plans to specify operating system requirements.
Q: Is the MIPI Alliance agnostic about air interface standards?
A: Yes. MIPI Specifications address the interface between application processors and associated peripherals. Interfaces based on MIPI Specifications could be used in products supporting any network such as GSM, CDMA2000, WCDMA, PHS, TD-SCDMA, etc.
Q: Will MIPI-based products be interchangeable?
A: MIPI Specifications will define characteristics of certain common interfaces, not entire application processors or peripherals, so it is unlikely that MIPI-Compliant products from different manufacturers would be pin-compatible.
Q: Are the internal architecture and bus structures covered by MIPI Specs?
A: No, the MIPI Alliance is only focused on interfaces among processors and peripherals. Application processor and peripheral vendors are free to develop unique and differentiated products, including proprietary internal architectures and bus structures. MIPI-specified interfaces will simply improve the inter-connectivity of these devices.
Q: What is the exact definition of a mobile terminal?
A: This term is defined in the MIPI Membership Agreement (MA). See in particular §1.6, which says:
‘“Mobile Terminal” means a mobile or handheld device that incorporates as a standard function wireless voice communication capability according to a telecommunications standard adopted either by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) or other SDO as agreed by Unanimous (as defined in the Bylaws) consent of the Board.”
For the purpose of the licensing as stated in the Membership Agreement, the same terms apply to a mobile “Accessory,” which is also defined in the MA in §1.1 as:
“Accessory” means an accessory to a Mobile Terminal that provides functional enhancements to the core functionality of the Mobile Terminal and that is primarily designed, developed, and marketed for use with a Mobile Terminal.
Q: Are E-books considered a mobile terminal? or Are digital single lens reflex/digital still camera (DSLR/DSC) products covered? or Are the displays my company manufactures for the automotive market considered a mobile terminal? etc.
A: These and similar questions are examples of attempts to determine whether a particular product falls within the licensing provisions in the Membership Agreement, and if so, whether MIPI so-called “mobile scope” licensing for Mobile Terminals and Accessories will apply or whether RAND licensing will apply outside that mobile scope.
In general, this determination is based on how the product implementing a MIPI Specification is designed and marketed, whether the product is Compliant to the requirements of the Specification, and whether the product is in a Mobile Terminal or Accessory. In general, by way of one example, if a system is one that a) a person can carry in his or her hand, b) is battery powered, and b) uses one of several international Standards for wireless voice communication as a standard function of the device, most people would consider that system to be a Mobile Terminal, and therefore MIPI “mobile scope” licensing should apply.
Unfortunately, it’s not possible to answer this question for every product without a great deal of knowledge about the product. We therefore suggest you consult your company counsel, who is better suited to evaluate the circumstances.
Q: Does MIPI deprecate Specifications?
A: If the term “deprecate” is intended to mean “change from authorized status to non-authorized and remove from active distribution,” no, MIPI does not deprecate Specifications.
Once a Specification is adopted, it remains available to current MIPI Members, who possess rights and obligations provided in the Membership Agreement. If a Member withdraws from MIPI, some of those rights and obligations survive, per the Membership Agreement. [Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deprecation , Top dissertationproposal writing UK
MIPI periodically updates Specifications with corrections and improvements, and does make recommendations to its Members that they should implement newer Specifications instead of older ones.
Accordingly, if the term “deprecate” is intended to mean making recommendations concerning documents to “indicate that they should be avoided, typically because they have been superseded,” yes, MIPI does sometimes make those recommendations, but they do not affect Member rights and responsibilities under the Membership agreement.
Q: Does MIPI create Errata documents for its Specifications?
A: No. MIPI Working Groups occasionally discuss changes they expect to make in a future update to a Specification, although these discussions and related documents are informative only and do not set normative requirements.
If a Working Group intends to set normative requirements, they create a Draft Specification, which follows the formal Review process where Contributor and Board level Member Companies enjoy rights and responsibilities during the Draft Reviews.
Q. Our Company has a customer interested in buying our product, which implements a MIPI specification. Can I furnish a copy of that specification to the customer?
A. All MIPI specifications are confidential and cannot be shared with non-Members unless allowed by the MIPI Board of Directors. However, MIPI’s Board has adopted a policy that permits such disclosure:
To employees and/or contractors with a need to know for the development of compliant products.
To develop and/or help sales of the Member’s compliant products (see important note below); or
To provide support documentation for the Member’s products.
NOTE: Only so much of the specification can be shared as is relevant for the development or sale of compliant products. Also, disclosure must include the MIPI copyright notice as contained in the specification plus certain required language. The full text of this policy can be found in the MIPI website, available to MIPI Members.