First off: everything ChrisP said is good advice, so I'm just adding some info, not arguing against any of his.
When you say that you get the message "no SD card", this leads me to think that you're using the old dysfunctional Android 4.2 image, which did indeed fail to mount any useful partition to the "/sdcard" spaceholder link. A normal Android system uses two different storage areas, one being an internal flash area (defaults to 1 GB in the original image), and the other being intended for an external SD card but in some designs also internal. The first area is normally linked as "/data" in the file system, while the second one should be mounted as "/mnt/sdcard" and linked to "/sdcard", for automatic recognition and use by most Android software. But like I said above, the original Android 4.2 image had an error in how that mounting was done, leaving the majority of a large SD card unused. And for this situation installation of any app which requires storage in the "/sdcard" area could fail, since that area wasn't working right.
I and other forum members have fixed that mounting problem, including the fix in later images released here, such as the one this thread is dedicated to. So with this mounting any space that was not consumed by the fixed-size partitions of the image file will be used for the "/sdcard" area. For example, using the original defaults for the other partitions, a 16GB card will yield an "/sdcard" area of a little more than 12GB. (We didn't change this partition scheme. It was there all along. But the expanded partition was just never linked until we made it so.)
But this still leaves the problem that only 1GB is allotted for those apps that require internal storage in "/data" for all their data, so to exceed that limit we need to use the methods described in the thread of the second link in ChrisP's reply above. Note that the partition size values are specified in number of 512-byte blocks, so you will need to double the amount of kilobytes you want, to get the proper value to use. EG: For a 32 GB card I use 8 GiB for "/data" by specifying its size as 16777216, which leaves appx 20 GiB to be mounted as "/sdcard". You can adjust the balance between these two areas as you please, of course, but I strongly advise against trying to use all the space for "/data", as most software expects to find a usable "/sdcard" storage area, and some will fail if they can't write some files there.
Best regards: dlanor